climate of afghanistan 2019

Work permits are issued for one year and are renewable. Under the New York Convention, Afghanistan has agreed to (a) recognize and enforce awards made in another contracted state, and (b) apply the convention to commercial disputes. Afghanistan’s economic freedom score is 54.7, making its economy the 136th freest in the 2020 Index. March 30 2019 10:40 AM EDT weather.com. Experts say warming will further fuel natural disasters, mass displacement, child marriage, and conflict. Investors should be aware that the 2018 Human Rights Report noted that arbitrary arrests occur in most provinces, and that authorities frequently detain citizens without respecting essential procedural protections. Afghanistan does not have a bilateral taxation treaty with the United States. Canning and packing fruit is one of the typical industries in the region while grapes and pomegranates are grown in the region of Kandahar and Lashkar Gah. The ACBR extended the validity of business licenses for three years and reduced the licensing fee. The Afghan government enacted a law to protect sound competition in markets and prevent unfair competition in 2010. Investment disputes are common in the areas of land titling and contracts. Decades of conflict and violence, coupled with drought and earthquakes, have had devastating impacts not only on the people of Afghanistan, but also on its natural environment, once pristine and rich in biological diversity. In general, the Afghan government shares draft legislation with interested parties for comment and some ministries publish draft legislation in national newspapers for public comment. Afghanistan has limited experience regarding IPR and needs significant capacity building to effectively enforce and administer IPR laws. Real estate agents are not reliable. The weather in Afghanistan is typical for its extreme range of temperature. Amounts over USD 10,000 but less than USD 20,000 must be declared. These profiles synthesize the most relevant data and information on climate change, disaster The maximum average temperatures are between 36 and 43 degrees Celsius (97-109° Fahrenheit). OPIC and Other Investment Insurance Programs, 13. The ACJC has successfully convicted some government officials for corruption. Most Afghan farmers are primarily subsistence farmers. Due to the influence of eastern monsoon from Pakistan, the eastern slopes of Hindu Kush around the city of Jalalabad are of yet very different warm Mediterranean climate. Afghan entrepreneurs complain interest rates for commercial loans from local banks are high, averaging around 15.5 percent. °F. The Ministry of Commerce and Industry (MoCI) is responsible for business facilitation. The Afghan climate is a dry one. The banking sector generally only provides short term loans. Afghanistan does not have a centralized ownership entity for SOEs; the Ministry of Finance is responsible for all SOE oversight. Under the law on Foreigners Employment in Afghanistan, foreigners can be employed on the basis of a work permit issued by the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs. All but three of the past 11 years have seen floods or droughts, including the country’s most severe drought ever, which lasted from 1998 to 2006. Afghanistan does not maintain a dual-exchange-rate policy, currency controls, capital controls, or any other restrictions on the free flow of funds abroad. OPIC operates its programs in Afghanistan under the Investment Incentive Agreement, which the Afghan government signed in 2004. Southwestern Plateau is another significantly different climate region of Afghanistan. Afghanistan does not have a sovereign wealth fund. Foreign investors have complained of irregularities in the court system, arbitration, and tax disputes. Agriculture remains Afghanistan’s most important source of employment:  60-80 percent of Afghanistan’s population works in this sector, although it accounts for less than a third of GDP due to insufficient irrigation, drought, lack of market access, and other structural impediments. A number of the competing mobile network operators have well-developed CSR outreach programs that include health, education, job creation, environmental protection, and outreach to refugees. Policies Toward Foreign Direct Investment. This piece was first published in January 2019. The practice of criminalizing commercial complaints is commonly used to settle business disputes or to extort money from wealthy international investors. Up to 170 tons of potatoes are produced in its semi-mountainous terrain. Companies seeking licenses to provide consultancy, legal, or audit services must meet requirements for education or related experience for top officers. Humidity: 61%. The World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business rating for Afghanistan increased in 2019 to #167 from #183 in 2018, driven by reforms in the ease of starting a business, getting credit, protecting minority investors, revenue collection, and a new insolvency law. The mountain regions of the northeast are subarctic with dry and cold winters. Temperature in Afghanistan decreased to 2.88 celsius in December from 7.73 celsius in November of 2015. Prior to 2012, Afghanistan did not have fully operational intellectual property rights (IPR) offices at the Ministry of Information and Culture (MOIC), which focuses on copyrights, or at the Ministry of Industry and Commerce (MOCI), which focuses on all other intellectual property areas. Kabul Extended Forecast with high and low temperatures. While 2019 more rainfall for Afghanistan than 2018, the deep underlying problems of trying to rebuild agriculture in a country ravaged by war, and increasingly affected by climate change, are not going to go away soon. Coordinator for the Arctic Region, Bureaus and Offices Reporting Directly to the Secretary, Office of the Coordinator for Cyber Issues, Office of the U.S. This page includes a chart with historical data for Afghanistan Average Temperature. Article 16 of the PIL states that approved domestic and foreign companies with similar objectives are subject to the same rights under Afghan law and the same protections against discriminatory governmental actions. In the summer (May to November), the temperature may reach up to 50°C while in the winter, – 20°C is very typical in some of the Afghani regions. As a result of the various legal and regulatory challenges, companies operating in Afghanistan may want to seek local legal counsel to help navigate licensing and permitting requirements and conforming to tax regulations. In the winter, the temperature may below zero. One fourth of the country belongs to the region called Southwestern Plateau, and the smallest of the three in the Northern Plains region. The climate in the highlands varies with elevation. The supreme law of the land is the Constitution. Roads connecting different parts of this region run through mountain passes, which are in altitude of 1000-4000 meters. Besides the agriculturally used land, there are grasslands and savannas. CLIMATE RISK COUNTRY PROFILE AFGHANISTAN iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This profile is part of a series of Climate Risk Country Profiles that are jointly developed by the World Bank Group (WBG) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB). Afghanistan is situated in the middle of south-central Asia. The Afghan government has stated its intent to formally join the Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia organization (TRACECA). +93 (0) 700-108-001 Pistachio, almond, walnut and juniper are among the typical agricultural produce here. Asia Foundation December 2019. Afghanistan’s climate is continental, with temperatures ranging from 30°C in summer to -20°C in winter. The penetration of banking services is described in the below tables based on Q3 2018 data from the Afghan Central Bank (Da Afghanistan Bank, DAB): Most Afghans remain outside the formal banking sector. President Ghani also took steps to hold those responsible accountable. ... Mohammad Aslam Sayas, an official with Afghanistan's federal disaster and humanitarian ministry, said … Contrary to this, north eastern parts of Hindu Kush range do not exceed ten centimetres of precipitation in a year. Afghanistan does not have a stock market. While registering a business can take as little as two days, it often takes longer and may require a local attorney’s help. Entities wishing to buy and sell foreign exchange in Afghanistan must register with the Afghan Central Bank (Da Afghanistan Bank, DAB), and thousands of licensed, as well as unlicensed, Hawalas continue to practice their trade. The government does not implement criminal penalties for official corruption effectively, and officials are reported to frequently engage in corrupt practices with impunity. Finance is Afghanistan’s second-largest service industry behind telecommunications and is potentially an important driver of private investment and economic growth. Property rights protection is weak due to a lack of cadasters or a comprehensive land titling system, disputed land titles, incapacity of commercial courts, and widespread corruption. The Afghan Central Bank (Da Afghanistan Bank, DAB) has made improvements in monitoring and supervising the banking sector, following the 2010 Kabul Bank crisis. Kabul, Afghanistan Afghanistan is not included in the United States Trade Representative’s (USTR) Special 301 Report or the Notorious Markets List. To fully comply with the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), laws related to other IPR substantive areas (e.g., industrial designs, trade secrets, and layout designs) are in the process of adoption. There is no legal requirement or practice for publication and comment for domestic laws, regulations, or other measures of application that will become legally enforceable. The PIL allows for expropriation of investments or assets by the government on a non-discriminatory basis for the purposes of public interest. After bearing the brunt of jihadist dynamite and looting by thieves, the archaeological treasures of Afghanistan's Bamiyan province are facing a new and possibly more daunting threat: climate … The Embassy believes many U.S. firms and U.S.-related entities are working with the Afghan government to resolve persistent differences over dividend taxes, vendor withholding tax obligations, taxation of U.S. government assistance, and other tax and contract disputes. The easternmost part of the Plains is where the Badakhshan Province is situated. The Government of Afghanistan operates over 30 active state-owned enterprises (SOEs), almost all of which are wholly-owned. Afghanistan has been a member state to the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID convention) since 1966. There are also branch offices of foreign banks, including Alfalah Bank (Pakistan), Habib Bank of Pakistan, and National Bank of Pakistan. Democrats talk impeachment, climate, Afghanistan in 2019's final debate. According to the 2018 Asia Foundation Survey of the Afghan People, shuras were used to resolve 45 percent of all disputes and represent the predominant form of dispute resolution employed by Afghans (up from 43 percent in 2017). U.S. citizens should review the Consular Information Sheet and Travel Warning for Afghanistan for the most up-to-date information on the security situation and possible threats. The legal system of Afghanistan consists of Islamic, statutory, and customary (Shura) rules. Foreign firms in Afghanistan follow accounting procedures consistent with international norms. Precipitation in this area may reach up to forty centimetres per year. Freedom of association and the right to bargain collectively are generally respected, but most workers and employers are not aware of these rights. +93 (0) 700-108-001. While precipitation in this area isn’t very high, this area is used for growing citrus fruits such as lime, lemon, orange and tangerine. President Ghani has made anti-corruption efforts a high priority, and the government has seen some success in reform of procurements and customs. Afghanistan is a landlocked mountainous country in the heart of Central Asia region. What Type Of Climate Does Afghanistan Have? In addition, various estimates place the value of the informal economy to be about USD 4.1 billion, based in part on illicit activities. Afghanistan is in principle welcoming toward foreign portfolio investment, but financial institutions and markets are at an early stage of development. Many documents evidencing land ownership are not archived in any official registry. In response to this situation, investment funds, leasing, micro-financing, and SME-financing companies have entered the market. As of December 2018, the banking sector gross Non-Performing Loans (NPL) ratio was 11.3 percent, while the net ratio stands at 5.9 percent. In spring, late frost can affect agriculture, mainly fruit production. Provisions in the Banking Law provide special procedures for bank insolvency. SOEs and SOCs make up a small share of overall economic activity, although a few SOCs have significant market share in their sectors, including Afghan Telecom (Aftel), Ariana Afghan Airlines, and the electrical utility DABS (Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat). Afghan entrepreneurs complain interest rates for commercial loans from local banks are high, averaging around 15.5 percent. Foreign Trade Zones/Free Ports/Trade Facilitation. There are large, yet informal, foreign exchange markets in major cities and provinces where U.S. dollars, British pounds, and euros are readily available. The population of Afghanistan was estimated at 32.9 million as of 2019 by the Afghanistan Statistics and Information Authority, whereas the UN estimates over 38.0 million. The population of Afghanistan was estimated at 32.9 million as of 2019 by the Afghanistan Statistics and Information Authority, whereas the UN estimates over 38.0 million. Afghanistan ranks 105 out of 190 economies for ease of obtaining credit in the World Bank’s Doing Business 2019. Foreign citizens traveling to Afghanistan for employment are required to obtain business visas and work permits. Afghanistan is also the only member of the Global Coalition to Defeat ISIS from South and Central Asia. There are several disputes between the government and investors, typically about tax assessments and license requirements. The FATF report can be found at http://www.fatf-gafi.org/countries/a-c/afghanistan/documents/fatf-compliance-june-2017.html  . Thanks to the abundance of pastures, this area has traditionally been used for raising livestock. Cases are frequently resolved more quickly through an informal system or, in some cases, pursuant to negotiations facilitated by formal justice system actors or private lawyers. Temperature in Afghanistan is expected to be 14.27 celsius by the end of this quarter, according to Trading Economics global macro models and analysts expectations. The PIL states that an investor may freely transfer investment dividends or proceeds from the sale of an approved enterprise abroad. The PIL permits investments in nearly all sectors except nuclear power, gambling, and production of narcotics and intoxicants. The climate is typical of an arid or semiarid steppe, with cold winters and dry summers. The Afghan government does not require the use of domestic content in goods or technology related to data storage. Afghanistan continues to have a small formal financial services sector and domestic credit remains tight. Afghanistan ranks 105 out of 190 economies for ease of obtaining credit in the World Bank’s Doing Business 2019. State of the climate State of the climate: How the world warmed in 2019 All of the official climate data for 2019 is now in. Afghanistan is a member of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), the South Asia Free Trade Area (SAFTA), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), and of Central Asian Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC). Climate Change . American Chamber of Commerce in Afghanistan: Over the past several years, Afghanistan has made significant progress in improving Anti-Money Laundering/Countering the Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) controls and is no longer subject to Financial Action Task Force (FATF) monitoring. In the summer (May to November), the temperature may reach up to 50°C while in the winter, – 20°C is very typical in some of the Afghani regions. According to credible contacts, civil cases in the commercial court system can sometimes take more than 18 months for parties to obtain resolutions. Comprehensive data on workplace accidents are unavailable, though there have been several reports of poor and dangerous working conditions. International Commercial Arbitration and Foreign Courts. Cold semi-arid climate is typical for the section of the Northern Plains bordering Uzbekistan, while the large Afghan cities Mazari Sharif and Kunduz lie in the cold dry climate zone. Afghanistan’s IPR regime provides investors with access to the judicial system and, in certain areas such as copyrights, to administrative appeals. Herat, the city located in the northern part of the Plateau, has more temperate summer climate than the rest of the region. In 2004, Afghanistan signed a Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) with the United States. In practice most foreign firms find it necessary to work with an Afghan partner. The FATF report can be found at, http://www.fatf-gafi.org/countries/a-c/afghanistan/documents/fatf-compliance-june-2017.html, Head of Secretariat of High Council on Rule of Law and Anti-Corruption: (HCRoLAC), https://data.worldbank.org/country/afghanistan, unctad.org/sections/dite_dir/docs/wir2018/wir18_fs_af_en.pdf. The mountain regions of the northeast are subarctic with dry and cold winters. Significant challenges to business in Afghanistan remain, due to the country’s still-developing legal environment, varying interpretations of tax law, inconsistent application of customs duties, persistent insecurity, and the impact of corruption on administration. Precipitation is generally rather low in Afghanistan, and its amount greatly influences the agricultural character of individual regions. Despite these efforts, many legal disputes are still resolved outside the formal justice system by community based tribal leaders. There are about 30 thousand square kilometres of land suitable for grazing. OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Since 2002, UN Environment has taken an active role in laying the environmental foundations for sustainable development in Afghanistan. Midwinter temperatures as low as -9 °C (15 °F) are common around the 2000-m (6600-ft) level in the Hindu Kush. This piece was first published in January 2019. Afghanistan has lost many correspondent banking relationships in the past few years due to risk aversion and lack of profitability. The law also requires extractive sector companies to safeguard and maintain any archeological and cultural relics they come across during the extraction operations until the Afghan government removes them. The government has undertaken several important reforms to attract Afghan private-sector and foreign investment, including promotion of public-private partnerships and streamlining the business license registration process. Afghanistan - Afghanistan - Demographic trends: The establishment of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan in 1978, the Soviet invasion of the country the following year, and the continuing conflict following the Soviet withdrawal in 1989 severely disrupted the country’s population patterns. The highest mountain in Afghanistan is Noshaq, with 7,492 meters of altitude. Afghanistan faces rates of warming higher than the global average with a potential rise of 1.4°C–5.4°C by the 2080s and the 2090s, compared with the baseline of 1986–2005. In 2016, the government opened the Anti-Corruption Justice Center (ACJC) to investigate and try corruption cases. Foreign investors seeking to work with Afghan citizens to purchase property should conduct thorough due diligence to identify reliable partners. There are also limitations on the total value of service transactions or assets with respect to motion pictures, road transport (passenger and freight), and on the total number of people that can be employed in security companies. Afghanistan’s Law on Publication and Enforcement of Legislation requires that official declarations, laws, decrees, and other legislative documents be published in the Official Gazette. Afghanistan is an Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) candidate country. Mean Temp: 59 °F. About 11,000 people are employed in sectors including public security, construction, transport, telecommunications, agriculture, and extractives. In urban areas, the majority of workers participate in the informal sector as day laborers in construction, where there are neither unions nor collective bargaining. 03 / Select Countries You can add more than one country or area. Afghanistan’s severe and escalating conflict, the drought in 2018 and flooding in 2019 have exacted a heavy toll on the population. Young people attend a Climate Strike rally, as Afghan security forces guard them in Kabul, Afghanistan, Friday, Sept. 20, 2019. The High Commission on Investment (HCI) is responsible for investment policy making. About 23.9% of them are urbanite, 71.4% live in rural areas, and the remaining 4.7% are nomadic. Afghanistan Weather, climate and geography ... with the online portal reaching its 20-year anniversary in 2019. 2019 Terrorist Incidents: Attacks attributed to terrorist activity continued to increase in 2019. This region receives very little rainfall, with snowfall being more typical in the winter months. Get the Afghanistan weather forecast. The existence of three overlapping legal systems – Sharia (Islamic Law), Shura (traditional law and practice), and the formal system under the 2004 Constitution – can be confusing to investors and legal professionals. The presence of mountain range around Kabul greatly influences temperatures in the Afghani capital. There have been no reports of government expropriation of foreign assets. Mountains near Kabul, Afghanistan. The animals Steppes north of Mazari Sharif are home of several million of quality karakul sheep as sheep are much more popular among the Afghans for their meat than the goats. Thanks to the wet winters and subtropical dry summers, this area is the main commercial and administrative region of otherwise harsh Pamir region. In the Afghan capital, where people are dying every day in horrific bomb attacks, a young generation, worried that if war doesn't kill them climate change will, took part in the global climate strike. The United States, European Union, Canada, India, and Japan have granted Afghan exports preferential import tariffs under their Generalized Systems of Preference. Jeff Seldin Voice of America November 21, 2019. The climate is typical of an arid or semiarid steppe, with cold winters and dry summers. The Law on State Owned Enterprises includes specific targets for research and development investment, social development measures, and employee profit sharing, but compliance is negligible. The most significant is the Afghanistan Pakistan Transit Trade Agreement (APTTA), signed in 2010. These disputes hinder the development of commercial and agricultural enterprises. The PIL states that an investor may freely transfer investment dividends or proceeds from the sale of an approved enterprise abroad. Northern Plains, known also as Turkistan Plains, are situated in the northernmost parts of the country, bordering Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. Three of the four major mobile network operators – Etisalat, AWCC, and Roshan – offer mobile money services. In other words, climate change may be helping to create the conditions for continued violence. Decades of conflict and violence, coupled with drought and earthquakes, have had devastating impacts not only on the people of Afghanistan, but also on its natural environment, once pristine and rich in biological diversity. Available in English, German and Spanish versions, the WTG provides detailed and accurate travel content designed to inspire global travellers. Afghanistan has a poor, agrarian economy with a small manufacturing base, few value-added industries, and a partially dollarized economy. Various corruption watchdog reports regularly indicate corruption is endemic throughout society. While agricultural production is very limited in the Central Highlands regions, there is significant potato production in the Bamiyan province. Investment in certain sectors, such as production and sales of weapons and explosives, non-banking financial activities, insurance, natural resources, and infrastructure (defined as power, water, sewage, waste-treatment, airports, telecommunications, and health and education facilities) is subject to special consideration by the HCI, in consultation with relevant government ministries. Afghanistan uses a managed floating exchange rate regime under which the rate is determined by market forces. Afghanistan Table of Contents. State of the climate State of the climate: How the world warmed in 2019 All of the official climate data for 2019 is now in. For example, ministries have in the past taken action to freeze accounts or limit travel for companies until they comply with regulations. The judiciary system is composed of the Supreme Court, the Courts of Appeal, and the Primary Courts. Afghanistan is not party to the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Climate . Afghan awareness of the term “Responsible Business Conduct” is nascent, but the government has encouraged large companies and foreign investors to invest in corporate social responsibility (CSR). The text of the law can be found at, https://www.ahg.af/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Draft-Insolvency-Law-English.pdf, For additional information about treaty obligations and points of contact at local IP offices, please see WIPO’s country profiles at, https://www.wipo.int/portal/en/index.html, Economic Section, Embassy of the United States of America. An estimated 80 percent of land is held and transferred informally, without legally recognized deeds, titles, or a simple means to prove ownership. It is illegal to transport more than USD 20,000 or its equivalent in other currencies out of Afghanistan via land or air. Afghans continue to rely on an informal trust-based process referred to as Hawala to access finance and transfer money, due in part to religious acceptance, unfamiliarity with a formal banking system, and limited access to banks in rural areas. For example, corruption often hampers fair application of laws, regulatory bodies lack capacity, and financial data systems are limited. All Year Climate & Weather Averages in Kabul. The HCI includes the Ministers of Agriculture, Finance, Foreign Affairs, Mines and Petroleum, and the Governor of the Central Bank (Da Afghanistan Bank). The steppe countryside is widely used for both agriculture and animal husbandry. There is no doubt that Afghanistan is suffering from the effects of climate change – so much so that the 2012 Global Adaptation Index ranks it among the most vulnerable countries in the world. Afghan officials collect bribes in exchange for undervaluing, under-weighing, or not scanning shipments, which facilitates smuggling of illegal goods and the illicit trade of legal goods, while also weakening Afghan revenue collection and regulatory institutions. UN Anticorruption Convention, OECD Convention on Combating Bribery. Geographically, it is divided into three main regions by the mountain range Hindu Kush, which runs from northeast to southwest in the country. CLIMATE RISK COUNTRY PROFILE AFGHANISTAN iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This profile is part of a series of Climate Risk Country Profiles that are jointly developed by the World Bank Group (WBG) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB). The Ministry of Finance may freeze assets to collect taxes. In the Afghan capital, where people are dying every day in horrific bomb attacks, a young generation, worried that if war doesn't kill them climate change will, took part in the global climate strike. Economic growth averaged only 2.3 percent annually from 2014-2017, with the same rate of growth estimated for 2018. Large mining contracts include stipulations for environmental protection and community inclusion. All but three of the past 11 years have seen floods or droughts, including the country’s most severe drought ever, which lasted from 1998 to 2006. The sudden influx of IDPs fleeing drought to the outskirts of Herat and Qala-e-Naw, the capitals of Herat and Badghis provinces, has led to the emergence of 19 sprawling informal settlements. It can hit with speed of 150 kilometres per hour and it brings heat and sandstorm while whirling the dust. There are 14 commercial banks operating in Afghanistan. By Joseph Kiprop on April 11 2019 in Environment. Central Highlands are marked by high peaks of Hindu Kush mountain range which can be over seven thousand meters high. The HCI and HEC are responsible for investment and economic policy making. 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